These birth defects occur very early in fetal development. And it’s pandemic in rural population of our society or in some other domain also. People have been taken it as a sin of their past activities and like that. But it does not falls into such criteria of past activities. Yes, but there are several reasons and genetic issues and other external factors that leads to this deformities, that results into the birth of a baby with cleft.
The tissue that will become the lip usually joins in the middle and fuses by about 5 to 6 weeks after conception. The palate forms in the similar manner at about 7 weeks.
I recently read some journals on cleft deformity and its formation in children, and got to know about genes responsible for this deformities, I can sum up the most important genes responsible for this in few lines here.
Mutations in the genes p63 and IRF6 have each been shown to cause cleft lip and cleft palate in children, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this have not been clearly determined in recent studies. It’s been in research to find further clues and causes for these deformities.
Scientists from Granada University and some other universities have now found that in mice p63 and IRF6 functions within a regulatory loop to coordinate key events in the normal development of the palate (the structure that separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity, allowing simultaneous breathing and eating), disruption of this loop as a result of mutations in p63 and IRF6 causes cleft lip and cleft palate.
There are some more genes playing role in the formation of cleft deformities when affected by some kind of mutations or aberrations in their sequences.
We can just wish if sciences and technology can help children to born without cleft, There are certain ways, that if cleft detected while formations of the lip and palate. The deformity can be corrected before birth of the child, It can be done, as gene Msx1 encourages the production of protein Shh (It helps in the formations of palate), gene Dlx5 discourages the production of protein “Shh” while the formation of palate. However, when the impact of the Dlx5 gene was suppressed, more “Shh” protein was successfully expressed and palate began to regrow normally.